Digital Audio Workstation (DAW) – “a computer program that is exclusively designed for the recording, editing and playing of digital audio files. A DAW allows you to edit and mix multiple audio sources simultaneously on a musical timing grid and to visually see how they line up over time. It also makes it easy to synchronize audio clips with each other based on a common tempo, meter, and beat” (EarSketch, 2014).

Kwaito – “a type of South African pop music with lyrics spoken over an instrumental backing usually consisting of slowed-down house music layered with African percussion and melodies” (Collins Dictionary, 2016).

Limiting – “the process of mastering where the track is pushed towards 0 decibels [db], think of it as being backwards so that 0db is the point where the track is at it’s loudest, and limiting brings the softest point closer to 0 db as-well. So a soft master would be loudest 0db – softest – 18db  (18dbs difference) and a loud master would be loudest 0 db – softest -6db (6db difference)” (Ribbans, 2016).

Loops – “audio recording (or a section of a recording) that is played repeatedly. Loops are usually short excerpts of instrumental passages or rhythmic patterns that can be used ‘building blocks’ within larger [musical] arrangements” (Souvignier, 2003: 1).

Mastering – “set of activities in the audio chain between the final production of the music on an intermediary format and its transfer to a distribution format” (Elektramusic, 2005: 34).




Andersen, Martin Stig, Bérangère Maximin, and Rodrigo Sigal. Electroacoustic. Bourges: Elektramusic, 2006. Print.

EarSketch (2014) Introduction to DAWs (Digital Audio Workstations). Available at: (Accessed: 14 April 2016).

“Kwaito”. Collins English Dictionary online. 2016. Available: [2016, May 12].

Ribbans, Kevin. 2016. Interview conducted on 11 April.

Souvignier, T. (2003) Loops and Grooves: The Musician’s Guide to Groove Machines and Loop Sequencers. Milwaukee: Hal Leonard Corporation.